“I’ve heard PDFs might be bad for my site SEO, and I have a lot of them. I’ve considered switching them to pages, but it’s a big endeavor. What should I do?“
Pete R., Davenport
That’s a great question, Pete. Thanks for writing in. As a short answer, we don’t recommend spending the man-hours and/or monetary resources turning your PDFs into HTML pages just for SEO. There are better ways to go about it…
Consider the Convenience
No matter what change or addition you’re considering for your site, the very first questions to ask are “Will this help my visitors” and “How will this help my visitors?” Before you do anything, consider why you used PDFs in the first place. Generally, the answer is “convenience”:
Your convenience – Usually, you upload the PDF because it’s good collateral to have. It was originally created as a brochure, PowerPoint, etc, and it would take time you don’t have to convert it to a good looking, onsite page.
The visitor’s convenience – With a click of a button, visitors can:
- Read your whitepaper, report, etc in easily-digestible pages
- Read without distracting site themes, ads, etc.
- Save to their desktop, mobile phone, etc. to read later if they don’t currently have the time
- Print the PDF if they prefer reading hard copies
If you look at PDFs from the viewpoint of convenience, they’re good assets to have – when warranted. For example, a web page with over 4,000 words may not be as well read as a PDF of the same word count. It’s just not as convenient.
– And remember, you should always put your visitor before the search engines. Having said all that, let’s look at the SEO aspect.
PDFs, SEO and DAO
Search engines can, and do, crawl / index / rank, PDFs. Therefore, having them indexed is also not a problem, in general. What is a problem, for both visitors and search engines, is failing to optimize the PDF. Here is where basic knowledge and DAO comes in:
About Digital Asset Optimization
DAO (Digital Asset Optimization) is a specialized subset of SEO. PDFs, videos, Excel sheets – anything that’s able to be uploaded can be considered a digital asset. It utilizes every possible way of tightening the relevance of an asset allowed by the creating program (such as Adobe PDF or MS Excel). For the rest of this article, we’re going to cover a series of points on how to optimize your PDFs (using Adobe Acrobat) – for the visitor’s sake, as well as the search engines.
- Optimizing for size – Many people simply create the PDF and save it. 1, 2, 3 done. However, a large PDF with many images and pages is naturally going to be bulky; bulky files mean slow loading, and slow loading means loss of interest. Compress PDFs before exporting. You can do this by going to Edit > Preferences > Documents > Save As Optimized for Fast Web View. *
*Note: if your PDF is mostly usable forms, Fast Web View is not recommended.
- Limit the extras – Fancy fonts and images are great for your brochure, but aren’t so great for your PDF. Try to limit the amount of “extras” – not so much that your PDF looks like plain text, but enough so it’s not 4MB.
- Optimize for SEO– You can optimize a PDF in the same way you would a regular HTML page:
- Use Alt tags for images
- Use key terms in the file name
- Use links in your document where warranted
- Add meta data* – this is easy to do, with no coding knowledge necessary. File > Properties > Description. Make sure you fill out the information areas allowed, including:
*Note: More options are available by choosing Properties > Additional Metadata, including copyright status, notice and URL reference.
- Optimize for Accessibility – Choosing Advanced > Accessibility, provides further options, including adding tags and screen reader functionality. Tags help you ensure strong categorization. Adding reader functionality ensures those who wish to can listen to the text being read aloud, rather than reading (sight-impaired visitors, for example).
- Optimize for Indexing – If you’re planning on your PDFs being indexed and ranked, don’t upload to some obscure folder 15 links deep on your site. Keep it close to the root directory (example: http://mysite.com/pdfs/filename.pdf), and link to it with pages close to the root.
- Don’t forget to write protect – You don’t want people taking your hard work and claiming it as their own, right? Properties > Security and Advanced choices allow you to set your particular level of copyright protection.
PDF or HTML? Which Is Best?
Even though PDFs are extremely popular, HTML is still more preferred in most instances. Consider, again, why you choose PDF over HTML for each instance and decide which is more viable. As you can see from the above, if you already have a lot of PDFs, a better use of your time may be to ensure your documents are optimized rather than switching them to HTML.
As you create more PDFs, you might consider creating an HTML version. Oh, not a copy and paste, but a short intro with a link to the full PDF. Give them enough so they can make an informed decision about whether going to the full PDF will be fruitful for them. In this way, you can increase the relevance of the PDF, as well as “pre-qualify” the reader somewhat. This also ensures they aren’t going to be surprised when their computer takes over and loads a PDF.
Optimizing PDFs for Search has an excellent outline on how to optimize PDFs for the viewer
Creating Accessible Acrobat Documents is an internal outline, developed by Minnesota Management & Budget, for creating accessible PDFs. It’s an excellent checklist for most PDFs (other than the option for Fast Web Viewing, which we discussed above).
PDFs have their place on the Web and are convenient. However, there is still no file more visitor and search-engine friendly than an HTML file. Before deciding on a PDF, make sure that it’s really going to be convenient for your visitors, and not just a case of “lazy webmaster”.
Don’t forget: if you have a question of your own that you’d like to see answered in a blog, you can drop it in the comments. You can also send us a question on Twitter using hashtag #343SEO, or send it in an email. Until next time, may you always have success.